Infinitive – to + Y羹klem (T羹rk癟e, Anla覺labilir ve Detayl覺 Anlat覺m)

grammer

INFINITIVE (= [TO] + YKLEM)

  1. Edilgen (= Passive) yap覺larda

1.1. “Present”

Bu yap覺da “passive + to + y羹klem”

– He is believed to live in New York.
Onun New York’ta yaamakta olduuna inan覺l覺yor

ya da “y羹klem + to + passive”

– I didn’t expect to be invited
Davet edilmeyi beklemiyordum

kullan覺lmaktad覺r.

1.2. “Continuous”

“Progressive infinitive” olarak bilinen yap覺 “to be + -ing” ile oluturulur ve etken yap覺da da kullan覺labilir.

– It is nice to be sitting here with you.
Burada seninle oturuyor olmak/oturmak g羹zel.

Bu yap覺da “passive + to be + “-ing” eklinde kullan覺labilir.

– He is known to be writing his autobiography.
Hayat hikayesini yazmakta olduu biliniyor.

1.3. “Past/Perfect”

“Perfect Infinitive” olarak bilinen yap覺 “to have + V3” eklinde oluturulur.

– It is good to have finished the day’s work.
G羹n羹n 癟al覺mas覺n覺 Bu g羹n羹n ilerini bitirmi olmak g羹zel.

Bu yap覺da “passive + to have + V3”

– He is known to have visited this city
Bu ehri ziyaret etmi olduu biliniyor

ya da “to have been + V3”

– I’d like to have been invited
Davet edilmi olmay覺 isterdim

kullan覺labilir.

  1. “be” + to

2.1. “be” + the first/last/only/.. + isim + to + y羹klem

– He was the first man to cross the Channel.
Man Denizi’ni ilk ge癟en insand覺.

Bu yap覺 T羹rk癟e’ye “-En + ilk/son/tek + isim” eklinde aktar覺l覺r.

2.2. “be” + to

Bu yap覺n覺n kullan覺m覺 “will” ya da “should” ile ayn覺d覺r.

  1. isim + to + y羹klem = who/which will/would + y羹klem

– He was to have been the new ambassador but he fell ill.
Yeni b羹y羹kel癟i olacakt覺 ama rahats覺zland覺.

  1. Why (not) + y羹klem

Bu yap覺da “to” kullan覺lmaz

– Why pay more ?
Neden daha fazla 繹deyesin ki ?

– Why not leave now ?
Neden imdi ayr覺lmayacak m覺覺m ?

  1. and / or / except / but / than + y羹klem

Bu yap覺larda “to” gereksizdir.

– I told him to lie down and rest.
– I’d rather stay than go.

  1. “do” + (to) + y羹klem

– All I did was to lend him a hand.
Tek/T羹m yapt覺覺m ona yard覺m etmekti.

– What a computer does is (to) process the data for you.
Bir bilgisayar覺n yapt覺覺 i bilgiyi senin/bizim i癟in ilemektir.

  1. To my/his/.. + s覺fat / isim, c羹mle

– Their rejection of the offer surprised me,
– I was surprised by their rejection of the offer,
– What surprised me was their rejection of the offer,

c羹mlelerinden her birinde “teklifin onlar taraf覺ndan reddedilmesi” olay覺 konuan kiiyi a覺rtm覺t覺r. Kimi zaman, tepkiyi anlatan yap覺 c羹mlenin d覺覺na 癟覺kar覺labilmektedir. Bu durumda da

To my surprise, they rejected the offer

eklinde bir c羹mle ortaya 癟覺kmaktad覺r. Bu yap覺da en s覺k

regret, annoyance, relief, surprise, horror, delight

isim ve s覺fatlar覺 ve bunlar覺n yak覺n anlamlar覺n覺 ta覺yan isim ve s覺fatlar kullan覺l覺r.

eviri s繹z konusu olduunda

– Benim hayretime/ak覺nl覺覺ma

t羹r羹 bir 癟eviri yanl覺 olur. Bunun yerine, “To” ile balayan b繹l羹m羹 ayr覺 bir c羹mle gibi ele almak daha anlaml覺 olacakt覺r.

– a覺rd覺m kald覺m. Teklifi reddettiler.

Bu yap覺 ile ilgili u 繹rnekler de verilebilir:

– To my mind, their rejection of the offer was a surprise.
(Benim a癟覺mdan, …)

– To a man of his age, such changes are unacceptable.
(Onun ya覺ndaki biri i癟in, …)

  1. “be” + s覺fat + to + y羹klem

– He is hard to satisfy.
(=It is hard to satisfy him.)
Onu memnun etmek zor.

– This violin is excellent to play Mozart on.
Bu keman Mozart 癟almak i癟in kusur

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