Uygun “Article” ve ─░sim(Noun) Se├žimi – a, an, the ve Di─čerlerinin Kullan─▒m─▒

grammer

─░S─░M (=NOUN) VE UYGUN “ARTICLE” SE├ç─░M─░

  1. Tan─▒m: “a(n)” ve “the”

“Article” se├žimi ├ževiri i┼člemlerinde ├žo─ču zaman bir sorun haline gelmektedir. “A(n)” (=Indefinite article) ve “the” (=Definite article) isimlerle birlikte kullan─▒l─▒rlar.

Bu iki kelimenin nas─▒l ve ne durumlarda kullan─▒ld─▒klar─▒na ge├žmeden ├Ânce, isim yap─▒lar─▒n─▒ incelemek yararl─▒ olabilir.

  1. Say─▒labilir ve say─▒lamayan isim

─░sim, say─▒labilen ve say─▒lamayan olarak s─▒n─▒fland─▒r─▒labilir:

Say─▒labilen (=countable) isim

  1. a) Tekil (=singular)

cat, leaf, man, person, iron (= ├╝t├╝)

  1. b) ├ço─čul (=plural)

cats, leaves, men, people/persons, irons

Say─▒lamayan (=uncountable) isim

  1. a) Somut (=concrete)

water, oil, sugar, iron (= demir)

  1. b) Soyut (=abstract)

happiness, wealth, boredom

  1. Kullan─▒m alanlar─▒

“A(n)” sadece say─▒labilen tekil isimler ile kullan─▒l─▒r. Kendisini takip eden isim sesli bir harf (a, e, i, o, u) ile telaffuz edilerek (yaz─▒larak de─čil) ba┼člarsa, “an” kullan─▒l─▒r.

an apple, an eagle, an iron, an orange, an umbrella

fakat

a university student
(u harfi “yu” olarak telaffuz edilmekte)

an hour
(sessiz olan h harfi telaffuz edilmemekte; {h}our)

“The” b├╝t├╝n isimlerle birlikte kullan─▒labilir. Bir ismin her zaman bir “article” almas─▒ gerekli ya da m├╝mk├╝n de─čildir.

  1. “A(n)” : Kullan─▒ld─▒─č─▒ yerler

4.1. Bilinmeyen ve ├Ânceden belirginle┼čtirilmemi┼č

Herhangi biri, hangisi oldu─ču farketmez

– I have never seen an elephant.
– We are looking for a person to help us in the home.

S├Âz├╝ edilen ┼čeyin, ait oldu─ču s─▒n─▒f─▒n/t├╝r├╝n herhangi bir ├╝yesi olmas─▒

– A screwdriver is a tool.

Bu kullan─▒mda ├žo─čul isim de m├╝mk├╝nd├╝r.

– Screwdrivers are tools.

Genel nesneler yerine belirginle┼čtirilmi┼č nesneler kullan─▒l-mas─▒ durumunda ├žo─čul isim kullanmak gerekir.

– Cars are parked at owners’ risk. (Cars = Buraya parkedilen belirgin arabalar)

Teredd├╝te d├╝┼č├╝lmesi durumunda en iyisi ├žo─čul isim kullanmakt─▒r.

… de/ba┼č─▒na

– 60 miles an hour
– Three times a week
– Ten pence a kilo

4.2. Bilinen fakat ├Ânceden belirginle┼čtirilmemi┼č

├ľzel biri, fakat hen├╝z belirginle┼čtirilmemi┼č

– I have found a good job at last.
– She is a very old friend of mine.

A Mr Nash called to speak to you.
(Mr Nash diye biri …)

Bir t├╝r/├Ârnek

– We have a good climate.
– What a strange man he is !
– I have never heard such a thing !

Meslek

– I am a teacher by profession.
– To be a good MP, you must be a good speaker.

  1. “The” – Kullan─▒ld─▒─č─▒ yerler

5.1. the + az ├Ânce/daha ├Ânce s├Âz├╝ ge├žmi┼č olan

– “I’ve got an orange and some apples. Who wants the orange ?”
– “You have the orange and I’ll have the apples.”

5.2. the + belirginle┼čtirilmi┼č isim

– The dogs in our street are very noisy.
– The Englishmen we met at the party knew a little Turkish.

5.3. the + eserde s├Âz├╝ ge├žen ki┼či(ler)/nesne(ler)

– The Elephant and the Mouse
– The Longest Day
– The Mousetrap

5.4. the + tek olan ┼čey

– They toured the world together.
– The earth goes round the sun.
– She lives in the United States now.

5.5. the + “superlative”

– the best/most recent/latest project

5.6. the + “ordinal” say─▒

– the first/last/next race

5.7. the + hayali bir t├╝r├╝n/s─▒n─▒f─▒n temsilcisi olan tekil isim

– The Panda is in danger of extinction.
– The computer has replaced the typewriter in the office.

5.8. the + s─▒fat = o s─▒fat ile nitelenen grubun t├╝m├╝

– The young do not listen to the old.
(= Young people do not listen to old people.)

Tekil ki┼čiler i├žin “s─▒fat + person/man/..” kullanmak gerekir.

– a/the young person/man/woman/..

5.9. the + yer ismi = o yerin amac─▒na uygun bir eyleme kat─▒l─▒nmamas─▒

– She went to the prison ( ├ť mahkum olarak de─čil)
– I would like to live near the sea.

5.10. the + yer = i├žinde bulunulan durumdan ├Ât├╝r├╝ tan─▒mlanabilen yer

Her insan─▒n kendisine ├Âzg├╝ bir ├ževresi oldu─ču ve o ki┼činin o ├ževreye ait her┼čeyi tan─▒mlayabilece─či d├╝┼č├╝n├╝l├╝rse, o ├ževreye yak─▒n olan bir kimse (akraba, arkada┼č, ayn─▒ ┼čehirli gibi) a├ž─▒s─▒ndan da o ├ževre tan─▒mlanabilir ├Âzelliktedir.

– I must go to the bank

c├╝mlesindeki “the bank”, konu┼čan─▒ tan─▒yan bir kimse a├ž─▒s─▒ndan belirgin bir bankay─▒ niteler.

– There is funny animal in the garden.

5.11. the + otel / tiyatro / sinema/.. ismi

– the Hilton
– the Ak├╝n

Ayr─▒ca

-the theatre/cinema/opera/concert

5.12. the + ├žo─čul yer ismi

– the Netherlands
– the Azores
– the United States
– the Alps

5.13. the + say─▒labilir bir isim i├žeren yer isimleri

Canal                      the Sues/Panama Cana
Channel                   the English Channel
Desert                     the Sahara (Desert)
Gulf                         the Gulf, the Gulf of Mexico
Islands/Isles             the British Isles, the Virgin Islands
Kingdom                 the United Kingdom
Mountain range        the Rocky Mountains
Ocean                     the Indian Ocean
Republic                  the Republic of Turkey
River                       the (River) Nile
Sea                         the Mediterranean (Sea)
State(s)                   the Gulf States, the United States of America
Straits                      the Bering Straits
Union                      the Union of South Africa

Yer darl─▒─č─▒ndan ├Ât├╝r├╝ haritalarda “the” genelde kullan─▒lmaz.

5.14. the + milliyet belirten sIfat

– the British
– the English
– the Spanish

Baz─▒ milliyetlerden s├Âz ederken, ├žo─čul isim kullan─▒l─▒r.

– (the) Russians/Arabs/Turks/Scots/..

5.15. the + bilim ve teknoloji ile ilgili kelime

– I hate the telephone.

5.16. the + m├╝zik aleti

– I’d like to learn the guitar.

Caz ve pop terminolojisinde genellikle “the” kullan─▒lmaz.

5.17. the + gazete ismi

– the Times

Dergi isimleri “the” almaz.

– Times (Magazine), Scala

5.18. the + A of B (A ve B birer isim)

– the University of Oxford

5.19. the + gemi ismi

– The Queen Mary

5.20. the + space = bir alanda bo┼č yer

– He tried to park his car but the space was not big enough.

“The” kullan─▒lmazsa “space” kelimesi “uzay” anlam─▒ ta┼č─▒r.

5.21. all the / the whole

  1. a) all

           the
all + my/your/. + isim
        this/these

– all the time
– all my life
– all this confusion

all + ├žo─čul isim ( “every” anlam─▒nda)

– All Indian tribes were killed off.
(Her bir … .)

  1. b) whole

the
my/your/.. + whole + isim
this

– the whole life
– my whole life
– this whole confusion

whole + ├žo─čul isim (“complete”, “entire” anlam─▒nda)

– Whole Indian tribes were killed killed off. (= kimse sa─č kalmad─▒)

                            the
the whole of + my/your/. + tekil isim
                        this/that

– the whole of the time
– the whole of my life
– the whole of this confusion

  1. “The” – Kullan─▒lmad─▒─č─▒ yerler

6.1. A + B (A ve B birer isim)

– Oxford University
– London Bridge
– Turkish Republic
– Atat├╝rk Airport

Bu yer isimlerinde “the” kullan─▒lmamas─▒n─▒n bir di─čer nedeni de birer b├Âlge ya da ki┼či ad─▒ ta┼č─▒malar─▒d─▒r.

6.2. t├╝r├╝ / s─▒n─▒f─▒ temsil eden ├žo─čul / say─▒lamayan isim

– Pandas are in danger of extinction.
– Sugar is bad for you.
– Money can bring happiness.

6.3. yerin amac─▒na y├Ânelik eyleme kat─▒lma durumu

– He was sent to prison for 2 years ( mahkum olarak).
– He is a fisherman. He spends his time at sea.

6.4. “ordinal” say─▒ + yar─▒┼čmada durum belirten isim / ├Âd├╝l

– She won first prize for her essay.
– The Irish contestant was in second place.

6.5. ├╝nvan (+ ki┼činin soyad─▒)

– I want to see the Captain, but Captain Smith.
– Hello, Captain.

6.6. k─▒ta, tekil ├╝lke / ┼čehir ismi

– Asia, Africa, South America, Great Britain, New York, Germany

6.7. tek da─č ve ada ismi

– Mount Everest
– Cyprus, Long Island

6.8. g├Âl ismi

– Lake Erie

6.9. “preposition” + isim

– on time, for example, in turn, in harmony, at night.

Fakat

– in the morning/afternoon/evening

ve

in                      spring
– during + (the) + autumn
before               summer
winter

6.10. y├╝klem + isim

Art─▒k birer terim haline gelmi┼č baz─▒ yap─▒larda “the” kullan─▒lmamaktad─▒r.

y├╝klem + say─▒labilir isim

– to take place

y├╝klem + ├žo─čul isim

– to make friends
– to shake hands

y├╝klem + say─▒lamayan isim

– to make progress
– to make love

6.11. by + isim (= … ile yolculuk)

by + bus, coach, car, train, air, plane, bike, motorbike, sea / ship / boat, Tube / underground
on + foot, horseback

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