Time Clause – Zaman C羹mleleri (T羹rk癟e, Anla覺labilir ve Detayl覺 Anlat覺m)

grammer

TIME CLAUSE

  1. TANIM

“Time Clause” yap覺larda zaman uyumu kural覺na dikkat etmek gerekir. Bu c羹mlelerde, ana c羹mle ile yan c羹mlede kullan覺lan tense uyumlu olmal覺d覺r. Yani,

PRESENT竄 PRESENT I never forget to pray before I go to bed.
PRESENT竄FUTURE Will you be there when I arrive at the airport.
PAST竄PAST When we got there, the film was over.

“Time Clause” yap覺larda zaman uyumu kural覺na bir tek since uymamaktad覺r.

I’ve known him since I left school. PRESENT竄 PAST

  1. TIME BEFORE

2.1.Until/Till

KULLANIMI
until/till + isim / c羹mle / -ing

EV襤R襤S襤
y羹klem + -E / -IncEyE kadar [1]
isim + -E kadar [2]

 

– He worked patiently until he completed polishing. [1]
Cilalamay覺 bitirene/bitirinceye kadar sab覺rla 癟al??t覺.

– Until the war, they didn’t know any poverty. [2]
Savaa kadar, yoksulluk nedir bilmediler.

“Until” ve “by” kelimelerinden hangisinin kullan覺laca?? konusu 癟eviri ya da 襤ngilizce yazma/konuma esnas覺nda bir teredd羹t konusu olabilmektedir.

“Until” belirli bir zamana kadar s羹ren bir olay ya da durum i癟in kullan覺l覺r.

– I have to keep writing until the end of next year.

“By” belirli bir zamanda ya da o zamandan 繹nce oluan bir olay i癟in kullan覺l覺r.

– My book will be finished by the end of next year.

Burada belirtilmesi gereken 繹nemli bir nokta da, “by” kelimesinin zaman yap覺lar覺nda bu t羹r kullan覺m覺nda hi癟bir zaman bir “conjunction” olarak kullan覺lamamas覺, yani, ard覺ndan bir S+V+(O) yap覺s覺n覺n gelememesidir.

2.2. Before

KULLANIMI
before + isim / c羹mle / -ing

EV襤R襤S襤
y羹klem + -mEdEn 繹nce
y羹klem + -DEn 繹nce

 

– They left before the door was opened.
Kap覺 a癟覺lmadan 繹nce gittiler.

2.3. By the time

KULLANIMI
by the time + c羹mle

EV襤R襤S襤
y羹klem + -EnE kadar

 

– They will have gone by the time we arrive.
Biz varana kadar onlar gitmi olacaklar.

  1. SAME TIME

3.1. As

KULLANIMI
(just) as + c羹mle

EV襤R襤S襤
(tam) … -(i)ken

 

– As she was walking down the road, she was hit by a lorry.
Yolda y羹r羹rken (ona) bir kamyon 癟arpt覺.

3.2. As long as/So long as

KULLANIMI
as long as/so long as + c羹mle

EV襤R襤S襤
y羹klem + -DII s羹rece/m羹ddet癟e

 

– I’ll love you as long as I live.
Seni yaad覺覺m s羹rece seveceim.

3.3. While/(Whilst)

Bu kelimelerden “whilst” 癟ok resmi yap覺larda kullan覺labilir.

KULLANIMI
while/whilst + c羹mle [1] / -ing [2]

EV襤R襤S襤
y羹klem + -(i)ken

 

– They came while I was sunbathing. [1]
Ben g羹nelenirken geldiler.

– While walking, he stumbled and fell. [2]
Y羹r羹rken sendeledi ve d羹t羹.

3.4. When/Whenever

KULLANIMI
when + c羹mle [1] / s覺fat [2] / -ing [3]; whenever + c羹mle [4] / s覺fat [5]

EV襤R襤S襤
(her ne) zaman … -sE
y羹klem + – DII zaman/-E/Ir(i)ken/-DII(n)dE/-IncE/ -DIk癟E

 

– When I sleep I always snore. [1]
Ben uyurken hep horlar覺m.

– Please do your exercise when(ever) possible. [2]
L羹tfen m羹mk羹n olan bir zaman / f覺rsat bulduunda al??t覺rman覺 yap.

– Be careful when lifting this bag. [3]
Bu 癟antay覺 kald覺r覺rken dikkatli ol.

– She visits her parents whenever she finds time. [4]
Ne zaman f覺rsat bulsa anababas覺n覺 ziyaret eder.

3.5. Now that

KULLANIMI
now that + c羹mle

EV襤R襤S襤
i癟in
(Haz覺r) … y羹klem -DII [(n)E] g繹re

 

– Now that everybody is here, we can start the meeting.
(Haz覺r) herkes burada olduuna g繹re, toplant覺ya balayabiliriz.

3.6. “-ing”

– He came in shouting.
Ba覺rarak girdi.

Bu yap覺ya benzer bir yap覺da hi癟 y羹klem kullan覺lmamaktad覺r:

– He came in drunk. (= When he came in he was drunk.)

3.7. During

KULLANIMI
during + isim

EV襤R襤S襤
esnas覺nda

 

– During the storm, a lot of people hid in the cinema.
F覺rt覺na esnas覺nda bir 癟ok insan sinemaya s???nd覺.

  1. TIME AFTER

4.1. After

KULLANIMI
after + c羹mle [1] / -ing [2] / isim [3]

EV襤R襤S襤
y羹klem/isim + -DEn/(mEsIn)In ard覺ndan/sonra

 

– After he had seen the murder, he couldn’t sleep whole night. [1]
Cinayeti g繹rd羹kten sonra b羹t羹n gece uyuyamad覺.

– After finishing his meal, Peter went to bed. [2]
Yemeini bitirdikten sonra Peter yatmaya gitti.

– After the riot, everything is calm and quiet. [3]
Ayaklanman覺n ard覺ndan herey sessiz ve sakin.

4.2. As soon as

KULLANIMI
as soon as + c羹mle [1] / -ing [2]

EV襤R襤S襤
y羹klem + -Er y羹klem + -mEz

 

– As soon as she saw the poster, she burst out a laughter. [1]
Posteri g繹r羹r g繹rmez bir kahkaha patlatt覺.

– As soon as leaving work, he rushes to the bar. [2]
襤ten 癟覺kar 癟覺kmaz bara koar.

4.3. Directly/Immediately

Bu iki yap覺 da s覺k kullan覺lmaz.

KULLANIMI
directly/immediately + c羹mle

EV襤R襤S襤
y羹klem + -Er y羹klem + -mEz

 

– She smiled immediately she heard the news.
Haberi duyar duymaz g羹l羹msedi.

4.4. Once

KULLANIMI
once + c羹mle [1] / -ing [2]

EV襤R襤S襤
Bir kez .. y羹klem + -DI mI/-mEyE g繹r-

 

– Once I make make up my mind, nothing can stop me. [1]
Bir kez karar覺m覺 verdim mi beni hi癟birey durduramaz.

– Once signing this contract, you will have to obey the rules. [2]
(=Once you sign this contract …)

4.5. Since

KULLANIMI
since + c羹mle [1] / -ing [2] / isim [3]

EV襤R襤S襤
y羹klem + -Den beri/bu yana

 

– He feels much better since he completed his exams. [1]
S覺navlar覺n覺 tamamlad覺覺ndan beri kendisini 癟ok daha iyi hissediyor.

– We haven’t gone out since visiting you. [2]
Sizi ziyaret etmemizden beri(dir) d覺ar覺 癟覺kmad覺k.

– I’ve been typing since 12. [3]
12’den beri daktilo yaz覺yorum.

4.6. When/Whenever

Kullan覺m ve 癟eviri a癟覺s覺ndan “Same time” bal覺覺 alt覺nda ele al覺nan “when / whenever” ile ayn覺d覺r.

4.7. Now that

Kullan覺m ve 癟eviri a癟覺s覺ndan “Same time” bal覺覺 alt覺nda ele al覺nan “now that” ile ayn覺d覺r.

4.8. No sooner … than

KULLANIM
No sooner + had + Subject + V3 + than ..+ Simple Past
(Mutlaka devrik yap覺da kullan覺l覺r)

EV襤R襤
Daha yeni/Hen羹z … y羹klem + -mItI ki …

 

– No sooner had he left than he heard the explosion.
Daha yeni 癟覺km覺t覺 ki patlamay覺 duydu.

4.9. Hardly/Scarcely … when

Kullan覺m ve 癟eviri a癟覺s覺ndan “No sooner … than” yap覺s覺 ile ayn覺d覺r. Mutlaka devrik yap覺da kullan覺l覺r.

4.10. On, upon

“-ing” bal覺覺 alt覺nda (aa覺da) ele al覺nmaktad覺r.

4.11. (only) to …

Ge癟ici bir durumu g繹stermek ve durumun ortaya 癟覺kard覺覺 sonucu ifade etmek i癟in kullan覺l覺r.

– I rushed to the door to discover it was locked

c羹mlesinde “to discover” yap覺s覺 “in order to discover” anlam覺 ta覺mamaktad覺r, zira bu anlam覺 ta覺yor olsa kap覺n覺n kilitli olduunu bile bile kap覺ya gitme s繹z konusu olacakt覺r.

* Kap覺n覺n kilitli olduunu kefetmek i癟in kap覺ya kotum.

Bu yap覺n覺n ger癟ek kar覺l覺覺

… to discover = and I discovered

yakla覺m覺 ile

Kap覺ya kotum ve kilitli olduunu farkettim

eklinde olacakt覺r.

– I woke up one morning to find myself on the floor.
Bir sabah uyand覺覺mda kendimi yerde buldum.

– She turned the corner, to find the car gone.
K繹eyi d繹nd羹 ve araban覺n orada olmad覺覺n覺 g繹rd羹.

– The curtain parted, to reveal a market scene.
Perde a癟覺ld覺 ve ortaya bir pazar dekoru 癟覺kt覺.

4.12. y羹klem + to + y羹klem

Asl覺nda “y羹klem + and + y羹klem” eklinde kullan覺labilecek bir yap覺d覺r ve uzunca bir s羹reye bal覺 bir sonucu ifade eder.

– She lived to be 100. (= and she became 100.)
– The show went on to become a great success.

  1. “-ing”

5.1. Same time (= When)

– Returning to the village, I met an old friend.
K繹ye d繹nd羹羹mde eski bir arkadala kar??lat覺m.

(On/Upon) receiving the letter, you should reply immediately.
Mektubu al覺nca hemen yan覺tlaman gerek.

“-ing” yap覺s覺 ile “time” ve “reason” anlat覺ld覺覺 zaman ana c羹mlenin ve yan c羹mlenin 繹znesinin ayn覺 olmas覺 gerekir.

– When I returned to the village I met an old friend. (= Returning to the village I met an old friend.)

5.2. Time after (= When/After)

“Having + V3” yap覺s覺 ile oluturulur.

– Having completed his study he submitted it to the committee. (= After he had completed …)

5.3. (By) + “-ing”

Bu yap覺 zaman belirtmesinin yan覺s覺ra neden (= reason) de belirtebilir.

– By taking advantage of the darkness, he escaped.
Karanl覺ktan yararlanarak ka癟t覺.

5.4. …, “ing”

– He rose to his feet, spilling coffee on his pants.
(= When he was rising to his feet, he spilt coffee on his pants.)

  1. Past participle (= V3)

Bu yap覺 edilgen (=passive) 繹zellik ta??maktad覺r.

– (When it is) taken as it is, the sentence will mean nothing.
Olduu gibi ele al覺nd覺覺nda bu c羹mle bir anlam ta覺maz.

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